SPARC Art Contest Voting

Click on each image to see the full size artwork, play the video entries, and read the artists' description of their work.

Vote for your favorite images and videos by clicking on the 'thumbs up' button. You can vote for multiple entries, but you can only vote once! Voting closes October 9, 2020.

Please note that the image and video descriptions are provided by the artists and do not represent the official view of the NIH or the SPARC program.

 

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360-Degree view of the three layers of submucosal plexus in human sigmoid colon in 3D

360-Degree view of the three layers of submucosal plexus in human sigmoid colon in 3D

Video - click to watch

360-Degree view of the three layers of submucosal plexus in human sigmoid colon in 3D


A video showing 360-degree presentations of three layers of submucosal plexus (SP) in the human sigmoid colon in 3D visualization after passive CLARITY technique. Inner SP (ISP) : in the front of image with ganglia in the large size. Outer SP (OSP): in the deep of image. Intermediate SP (IMSP): lying between the ISP and OSP. Neurons and fibers were labeled with a novel mouse anti-human peripheral form of choline acetyltransferase antibody.

4D Stomach Displacement Map

4D Stomach Displacement Map

4D Stomach Displacement Map

4D Stomach Displacement Map

A novel non-invasive MR imaging technique allows us to collect 4D data of the stomach to assess how to stomach is contracting. The image shown depicts the how much the stomach is deforming over time. 

Airway Tac1+ afferents terminating in the nucleus tractus solitarius

Airway Tac1+ afferents terminating in the nucleus tractus solitarius

Airway Tac1+ afferents terminating in the nucleus tractus solitarius

Airway Tac1+ afferents terminating in the nucleus tractus solitarius

Following instillation of AAV-flex-tdTomato in the airways of a Tac1-cre mouse, the central terminals of neuropeptide-expressing sensory nerves (from both the left and right vagus nerves) are visualized in the dorsal medulla. These sensory afferents terminate in the NTS, where their activation controls multiple autonomic networks including those related to cardiovascular, respiratory and enteric function. The image is a composite of serial coronal sections of the NTS, with tdTomato expression labeled in pseudorainbow, encoded by rostral-caudal position (in microns). Scale bar denotes 100um.

Circle of Data

Circle of Data

Circle of Data

Circle of Data

What do your data look like? How can you 'see' all of your research data at once? Effectively visualizing the different facets of research datasets can be very helpful to organize and curate data, ultimately improving data quality for archiving and sharing. We were inspired by the Radial Tidy Tree (D3.js library) to visualize data from spinal cord stimulation experiments and were surprised to discover that such visualizations could be so artistic and hypnotic. This visualization originates from work to determine metadata consistency during the curation process for the dataset "Lower urinary track nerve responses to high-density epidural spinal cord stimulation ML-RNEL 4908 Bladder SCS" (https://doi.org/10.26275/iami-zirb) accessible on sparc.science.

Circuitry of the Stellate Ganglion

Circuitry of the Stellate Ganglion

Circuitry of the Stellate Ganglion

Circuitry of the Stellate Ganglion

The stellate ganglion supplies innervation to glands, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle of the upper limbs and thorax.  Shown is the cranial medial pole of a mouse stellate ganglion labeled with an antibody to tyrosine hydroxylase (white).  Overlaid on the confocal image are the traced structures (Neurolucida360) of three neurons (blue, purple, green) from which intracellular recordings were made, in combination with intracellular labeling and 3D confocal imaging.  This approach is being used to create an atlas of stellate neuron morphology, physiology and synaptology to delineate the neural circuitry controlling the heart.  Full methodological details can be found on protocols.io (dx.doi.org/10.17504/protocols.io.bbq3imyn).  All data reside in the SPARC DAT-Core (DOI:10.26275/atzo-uhlm).

Cross talk between extrinsic (red) and intrinsic (green) cholinergic innervations in the pig colon

Cross talk between extrinsic (red) and intrinsic (green) cholinergic innervations in the pig colon

Cross talk between extrinsic (red) and intrinsic (green) cholinergic innervations in the pig colon

Cross talk between extrinsic (red) and intrinsic (green) cholinergic innervations in the pig colon

An image showing  simultaneous labeling of extrinsic and intrinsic cholinergic innervation in the pig proximal colonic myenteric plexus  by double immunostaining. Intrinsic cholinergic neurons and fibers were labeled with a novel mouse anti-human peripheral form of choline acetyltransferase (pChAT) antibody as green color. Extrinsic cholinergic innervation was labeled with a rabbit anti- human common type of ChAT (cChAT) antibody as red color. cChAT immunoreactive varicose fibers and dot like structures surround the hpChAT IR neurons. Scale bar 100 µm.

Engineering approach for the treatment of obesity

Engineering approach for the treatment of obesity

Engineering approach for the treatment of obesity

Engineering approach for the treatment of obesity

Miniaturized, implantable wireless optogenetic gastric implant directly interfaces with nerve endings in the stomach in the attached illustration. Attached video provides visual evidence of the utility of the novel tool in the study of peripheral nervous system, in particular vagal sensory pathway. In the video, optogenetic stimulation of nerve endings in the stomach in Calca Cre fasted mice significantly suppresses appetite. Hope is that we can reverse obesity in obese animals with chronic stimulation of nerve endings in the stomach.

Fecobionics

Fecobionics

Video - click to watch

Fecobionics


Fecobionics is a novel simulated feces for studying colorectal transit and defecation. Video representation of Fecobionics data obtained inside the proximal canine colon. The diagrams to the left in the graphical user interface are topography plots of the diameters of the distended bag (top) and pressures (below). In the diameter topography, the oral end of Fecobionics is at the bottom of the diagram and the aboral end is at the top. The display speed is 4-5 times faster than real-time. Two distinctly different contraction patterns are visible. One pattern exhibits coordinated pressure variations corresponding to antegrade propagating contractions. The other pattern shows diameter waves crossing the bag from aboral to oral (retrograde). These retrograde waves are not detected by manometry and have a frequency and pattern that correspond to “shallow waves” and “ripples”, previously recorded in rodent and rabbit colon preparations in vitro. The 3D animation (right) shows the shape and orientation of Fecobionics. The orientation is affected by gross movements of the dog. Significant changes in shape are observed, which is consistent with mixing and transit of colonic contents. The retrograde contractions visible in the diameter map are also visible in the 3D animation. The propagating antegrade contractions result in distribution of fluid to the aboral end of the Fecobionics bag.

Heart Strings

Heart Strings

Heart Strings

Heart Strings

A small part of the complex web of nerve fibers and neuronal cell bodies that reside on surface of the heart. This is one ganglion within a 'ganglionated plexus' on the right atrium (the Right Atrial Ganglionated Plexus, RAGP). The RAGP is one of several neural plexuses distributed across the base of the heart that make up the intrinsic cardiac nervous system (ICNS). The ICNS is responsible for shaping our every heart beat in response to emotions and environmental changes. The tissue was fixed and stained with antibodies targeting a panneuronal marker (PGP9.5, cyan), tyrosine hydroxylase (magenta), and neurobiotin (yellow).

Human islet innervation

Human islet innervation

Human islet innervation

Human islet innervation

Representative image of a human islet with GFAP+ (green) Schwann cells outlining the extensive nature of islet innervation. The pancreas sample was cleared using iDISCO and imaged by confocal microscopy. Glucagon-secreting alpha-cells are shown in red. Maximum intensity project. Scale bar: 100um

Humbly I Look Up

Humbly I Look Up

Humbly I Look Up

Humbly I Look Up

Humbly we look up for answers to humanities biggest questions. Where do we come from? Why are we here? Where will we go? Why me? Why do I have this condition? Who can help me? In the search for new therapeutic solutions to relieve condition standard care cannot treat, I humbly looked up and there the answer was: Make an online platform, freely available, which enables the entire humanity to use the latest simulation technology in the search for novel methods and techniques to tap into humanities biggest potential, Electricity. We are electrically wired beings and in there lies the solution to many conditions and diseases we must relieve and heal but cannot with current chemical, or other, means. As the Internet completely changed the world by freely sharing information, o2S2PARC freely shares information processing and research results on the highest level and thereby enables the brightest and most enthusiastic brains around the globe, regardless of their financial situation, to contribute in the development of electrical therapies we only can dream of.

Jungle of IGLEs

Jungle of IGLEs

Jungle of IGLEs

Jungle of IGLEs

Digital image of the stomach wall of a transgenic mouse expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in vagal afferents endings. The leafy structures that are observed correspond to specialized tension receptors known as Intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs). Z-stacks were acquired with a confocal microscope and color coded using Image J. This mouse model is useful for investigators interested in the optogenetic stimulation of vagal afferents.

Lost in the vagus

Lost in the vagus

Lost in the vagus

Lost in the vagus

The cervical vagus nerve of a mouse was processed for peripherin immunohistochemistry (red) and Bodipy staining (green). Digital images across the nerve were collected using a Zeiss confocal microscope. One isolated neuron is observed between bundles of vagal fibers. This type of staining may be useful in the routine evaluation of the integrity of the vagus nerve after chronic neurostimulation. 

Micro CT of Microneedle Array in Vagus Nerve

Micro CT of Microneedle Array in Vagus Nerve

Video - click to watch

Micro CT of Microneedle Array in Vagus Nerve


The vagus nerve is a target for a number of bioelectronic treatments designed to treat disorders and diseases including, but not limited to, depression, migraines, and rheumatoid arthritis. Chronic intraneural recordings of the vagus nerve would provide detailed electrophysiology data that could provide insight into how these therapies work. The cuff-less MIcroNeedle Array (MINA) presented in this video provides a distinct advantage over traditional cuff electrodes because of its high density electrodes. This reconstructed microCT scan was taken after the MINA was implanted in the cervical vagus nerve of a rat for 1 week. The needles are still penetrating the epineurium, and so have the potential to provide intraneural recordings that will better our understanding of vagus nerve stimulation.

Mouse nodose staining

Mouse nodose staining

Video - click to watch

Mouse nodose staining


Neural subtype staining of the adult mouse nodose ganglia using multiplexed fluorescence in situ hybridization for cck1r (blue), npy2r (green), and p2ry1 (red).

Nerve Response Decoder

Nerve Response Decoder

Nerve Response Decoder

Nerve Response Decoder

A reconstruction of the expected nerve response from the vagus using a combination of modeling approaches, experimental data, and morphological analysis. We can identify exactly where a nerve fiber contributes to a population level response (compound nerve action potential).

Nerves on the heart

Nerves on the heart

Nerves on the heart

Nerves on the heart

The autonomic nervous system modulates all aspect of the cardiac function, including its electrical and mechanical activity. Following cardiac injury such as myocardial infarction, the autonomic nervous system undergoes substantial remodeling. Characterizing this remodeling will provide us with an opportunity to develop therapeutic interventions that restore cardiac function. Using cutting-edge neuroscience techniques, here we show the dense network of nerves on a mouse heart. (Associated DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-09770-1)

Neuromodulation - Spinal cord and musculoskeletal closed loop

Neuromodulation - Spinal cord and musculoskeletal closed loop (1)

Neuromodulation - Spinal cord and musculoskeletal closed loop (1)

Neuromodulation - Spinal cord and musculoskeletal closed loop

This figure is a screenshot from NEUROiD, our lab's flagship in silico web-based Neuromechanical simulation platform [1] which enables co-simulation of the NEURON neural simulator [2] and OpenSim biomechanics simulator [3]. NEUROiD enables multiscale and multidisciplinary model design, simulation, and visualization. The screenshot presents a simulation of an exemplar spinal cord stimulation experiment whereby ventral horn motor neurons of C5 are stimulated to affect upper limb elbow flexion. The model designed here contains relevant spinal cord sections C5-C8 based on the Spinal cord atlas[4] and includes anatomical details such as the various Rexed laminae. In the center is a 3D model of the spinal cord that can be rotated, zoomed, or manipulated as a 3D object. The neurons may be seen as yellowish spheres embedded in the spinal cord. Stimulating(red) and recording(blue) electrodes may be inserted into appropriate places as in standard electrophysiology operations. Here we utilize these electrodes to stimulate ventral horn neurons in order to mimic the stimulation of motor neurons by means of a spinal cord stimulation method such as EES. Cellular recordings are performed from within the Bicep and Triceps motor neurons. A variety of neurons - motor neurons, Ia, Ib afferent neurons, Renshaw cells, and interneurons are modeled and placed in the anatomically correct locations in the appropriate laminae. A slice of the spinal cord is visible in the inset to the left of the main spinal cord view. The cellular responses and population responses from a single neuron and the entire cell group are displayed in the top panels. The neural circuits are connected with the musculoskeletal model simulated inside OpenSim. The musculoskeletal model in this case is the ARM-26 [5] and is visible in the inset on the right of the spinal cord. The neuro-muscular interactions happen through NEUROiD's NEURON-OpenSim glue interface. The motor neurons of the spinal cord feed the muscle activations in OpenSim, while the afferents Ia, Ib, and II feedback back onto the spinal cord to complete the reflex circuits. The model is accessed, simulated, and visualized by means of a web browser. The result of the experiment may be seen in the form of cellular, population, and behavioral responses simultaneously demonstrating the multidisciplinary and multiscale nature of the platform.

Neuromodulation - Spinal cord and musculoskeletal closed loop

Neuromodulation - Spinal cord and musculoskeletal closed loop (2)

Neuromodulation - Spinal cord and musculoskeletal closed loop (2)

Neuromodulation - Spinal cord and musculoskeletal closed loop

This figure is a screenshot from NEUROiD, our lab's flagship in silico web-based Neuromechanical simulation platform [1] which enables co-simulation of the NEURON neural simulator [2] and OpenSim biomechanics simulator [3]. NEUROiD enables multiscale and multidisciplinary model design, simulation, and visualization. The screenshot presents a simulation of an exemplar spinal cord stimulation experiment whereby ventral horn motor neurons of C5 are stimulated to affect upper limb elbow flexion. The model designed here contains relevant spinal cord sections C5-C8 based on the Spinal cord atlas[4] and includes anatomical details such as the various Rexed laminae. In the center is a 3D model of the spinal cord that can be rotated, zoomed, or manipulated as a 3D object. The neurons may be seen as yellowish spheres embedded in the spinal cord. Stimulating(red) and recording(blue) electrodes may be inserted into appropriate places as in standard electrophysiology operations. Here we utilize these electrodes to stimulate ventral horn neurons in order to mimic the stimulation of motor neurons by means of a spinal cord stimulation method such as EES. Cellular recordings are performed from within the Bicep and Triceps motor neurons. A variety of neurons - motor neurons, Ia, Ib afferent neurons, Renshaw cells, and interneurons are modeled and placed in the anatomically correct locations in the appropriate laminae. A slice of the spinal cord is visible in the inset to the left of the main spinal cord view. The cellular responses and population responses from a single neuron and the entire cell group are displayed in the top panels. The neural circuits are connected with the musculoskeletal model simulated inside OpenSim. The musculoskeletal model in this case is the ARM-26 [5] and is visible in the inset on the right of the spinal cord. The neuro-muscular interactions happen through NEUROiD's NEURON-OpenSim glue interface. The motor neurons of the spinal cord feed the muscle activations in OpenSim, while the afferents Ia, Ib, and II feedback back onto the spinal cord to complete the reflex circuits. The model is accessed, simulated, and visualized by means of a web browser. The result of the experiment may be seen in the form of cellular, population and behavioral responses simultaneously demonstrating the multidisciplinary and multiscale nature of the platform.

Neuromodulation - Spinal cord and musculoskeletal closed loop

Neuromodulation - Spinal cord and musculoskeletal closed loop (3)

Neuromodulation - Spinal cord and musculoskeletal closed loop (3)

Neuromodulation - Spinal cord and musculoskeletal closed loop

This figure is a screenshot from NEUROiD, our lab's flagship in silico web-based Neuromechanical simulation platform [1] which enables co-simulation of the NEURON neural simulator [2] and OpenSim biomechanics simulator [3]. NEUROiD enables multiscale and multidisciplinary model design, simulation, and visualization. The screenshot presents a simulation of an exemplar spinal cord stimulation experiment whereby ventral horn motor neurons of C5 are stimulated to affect upper limb elbow flexion. The model designed here contains relevant spinal cord sections C5-C8 based on the Spinal cord atlas[4] and includes anatomical details such as the various Rexed laminae. In the center is a 3D model of the spinal cord that can be rotated, zoomed, or manipulated as a 3D object. The neurons may be seen as yellowish spheres embedded in the spinal cord. Stimulating(red) and recording(blue) electrodes may be inserted into appropriate places as in standard electrophysiology operations. Here we utilize these electrodes to stimulate ventral horn neurons in order to mimic the stimulation of motor neurons by means of a spinal cord stimulation method such as EES. Cellular recordings are performed from within the Bicep and Triceps motor neurons. A variety of neurons - motor neurons, Ia, Ib afferent neurons, Renshaw cells, and interneurons are modeled and placed in the anatomically correct locations in the appropriate laminae. A slice of the spinal cord is visible in the inset to the left of the main spinal cord view. The cellular responses and population responses from a single neuron and the entire cell group are displayed in the top panels. The neural circuits are connected with the musculoskeletal model simulated inside OpenSim. The musculoskeletal model in this case is the ARM-26 [5] and is visible in the inset on the right of the spinal cord. The neuro-muscular interactions happen through NEUROiD's NEURON-OpenSim glue interface. The motor neurons of the spinal cord feed the muscle activations in OpenSim, while the afferents Ia, Ib, and II feedback back onto the spinal cord to complete the reflex circuits. The model is accessed, simulated, and visualized by means of a web browser. The result of the experiment may be seen in the form of cellular, population and behavioral responses simultaneously demonstrating the multidisciplinary and multiscale nature of the platform.

Not Lost In Translation

Not Lost In Translation

Not Lost In Translation

Not Lost In Translation

What is the heart saying, and how can we understand its language better? Unfortunately, 75% of myocardial ischemia episodes are sub-perceptual, and 50% of heart attacks are not sensed by the patient. Can artificial intelligence help us be better 'listeners'? This artwork blends together 4 tones relevant for SPARC's goals: 1) vagal modulation, 2) cardiovascular neuromodulation, 3) machine learning controllers, and 4) closed-loop interfacing.  

Roots of The Wandering Nerve

Roots of The Wandering Nerve

Roots of The Wandering Nerve

Roots of The Wandering Nerve

'Rooted' in diversity, the Wandering nerve just finds a way. This artwork blends together 3 tones relevant for SPARC's goals: 1) vagal modulation, 2) potentially selective neuromodulation, and 3) machine learning controllers.

Simulated colonic feces (Figure 1)

Simulated colonic feces (Figure 1)

Simulated colonic feces (Figure 1)

Simulated colonic feces (Figure 1)

Representation of antegrade and retrograde colonic longitudinal waves that are independent of pressure waves. Aboral direction is at the top of the diameter map.

Simulated colonic feces (Figure 2)

Simulated colonic feces (Figure 2)

Simulated colonic feces (Figure 2)

Simulated colonic feces (Figure 2)

Simulated colonic feces reveals novel contraction patterns in vivo: Representation of retrograde colonic shallow contraction waves that are independent of pressure waves. Aboral direction is at the top of the diameter map.

Sound and wave(lets) of the vagus nerve

Sound and wave(lets) of the vagus nerve

Video - click to watch

Sound and wave(lets) of the vagus nerve


Audio representation and scaleogram of an BIOS ongoing recording of the vagus nerve. This representation is useful in preliminary surgery recordings. It is also used to feed machine learning algorithms as a representation of the neural activity. The extracted biomarkers are then used to control the nerve stimulation improving organ functions.

Spinning Rat Hearts

Spinning Rat Hearts

Spinning Rat Hearts

Spinning Rat Hearts

Spatially-tracked anatomical and molecular map of rat intrinsic cardiac nervous system (ICN) to enable comparison of variability within and across sexes. Seen here 4 male and 3 female hearts.

Surfing the slow waves in the mouse stomach

Surfing the slow waves in the mouse stomach

Surfing the slow waves in the mouse stomach

Surfing the slow waves in the mouse stomach

Representation of the virtual stomach. Three orthogonal interstitial cells of Cajal networks from the antrum of a mouse. Tissue was imaged with confocal microscopy and the interstitial cell of Cajal network was extracted and used to form computational meshes. The meshes were embedded within a mouse stomach scaffold (transparent surface) and overlaid with simulated slow wave patterns (colored field).

The Heart's Brain

The Heart's Brain

The Heart's Brain

The Heart's Brain

A single cluster of autonomic neurons residing on the surface of the heart is shown as a volume image (left panel), maximum intensity projection (center), and red/cyan anaglyph (right)(observation with red-blue 3D glasses recommended).  A network of interconnecting ganglia, like this, form the intrinsic cardiac nervous system which is integral to the coordination of cardiac function during changing internal and external environmental conditions. Our team is mapping the structure and function of this neural plexus for development of targeted neuromodulation therapies in the treatment of cardiac disease.  This porcine ganglion whole-mount was fixed with 2% formaldehyde overnight, labeled with a PGP9.5 primary antibody and a CY3 secondary antibody, and imaged in 3D with a Leica SP5 confocal microscope.

Two photons are better than one: seeing and activating electrical activity

Two photons are better than one: seeing and activating electrical activity

Two photons are better than one: seeing and activating electrical activity

Two photons are better than one: seeing and activating electrical activity

The following is a two-photon image of a brain slice expressing the green calcium indicator GCaMP6s, and the red optogenetic probe C1V1-mCherry. The indicator allows neuroscientists to monitor cellular activity and communication through the exchange of calcium. C1V1-mCherry allows for the identification of photosensitive cells which can be activated upon illumination. Two-photon absorption provides the benefit of decreased out-of-focus optical excitation, and consequently improved spatial precision for cellular illumination. This improves contrast for imaging nervous tissue, and promotes single-cell activation of optogenetically-expressing cells. This technology facilitates activation of electrical impulses in photosensitive tissue with single-cell precision, allowing researchers to precisely actuate electrical activity and monitor its effects in the local microenvironment.

Vagal sensory neurons labeled by AAV vectors

Vagal sensory neurons labeled by AAV vectors

Vagal sensory neurons labeled by AAV vectors

Vagal sensory neurons labeled by AAV vectors

Following microinjection of the vagal ganglia of TRPV1-cre mice with AAV-flex-tdTomato and AAV-GFP, numerous vagal sensory neurons are labeled with the green GFP and some of the nociceptive/defensive neurons are also labeled with the red tdTomato. Scale bar is 100um. Vagal sensory nerves are activated by peripheral organ stimuli. Activation of vagal sensory nerves evokes a plethora of sensations and reflexes.

Video showing dense innervation of pig colonic mucosa in 3D image

Video showing dense innervation of pig colonic mucosa in 3D image

Video - click to watch

Video showing dense innervation of pig colonic mucosa in 3D image


A video showing 3D imaging of pig colonic innervation. The pig proximal colon was cleared using passive CLARITY technique and nerve fibers/bundles innervating the colon mucosa and projecting from submucosal neurons were labeled with a pan-neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5). The image was acquired with SP8 DIVE multi photon microscope in 500 μm depth.

Nerve cells and fibers in a micro community of mouse colon

Viral tracing ENS

Viral tracing ENS

Nerve cells and fibers in a micro community of mouse colon

Nerve cells and fibers in a micro community of mouse colon

Confocal microphotograph of viral-labeled multicolor nerve cells and fibers in a mouse large intestine and digital traces. The techniques provide tools for digital segmentation of nervous plexus to display neuronal element wiring in a micro-circuit in the gut. The data can contribute to modeling the enteric nervous system, one of targets of neuromodulation.

What the images show:
Left: Confocal microphotograph of random and sparse AAV transduced multicolored neurons and nerve fibers in a mouse proximal colon Right: Digital traces of panel A (same scale) The viral vector is a 4 vector system, consisted of an inducer driving three vectors each carrying one of the three kinds of fluorophores The colon sample was obtained from a male mouse injected intravenously 3 weeks before The digital tracing was performed in Neurolucida 360 (MBF Biosciences) Various types of labeled neurons located in one large ganglion Long nerve fibers from different directions cross the ganglion, and two fibers (magenta and green) were traced running closely apposed in segments with axons of neurons (white and red) Two axons (aqua and peach on the top) were adjacent to each other, so did two somas (red and yellow) One neuron ( had complex wiring with neurons nearby via the axon soma, axon dendritic and axon axon contacts Vertically projecting fibers in the left side of Panel A are the fibers innervating the circular muscles

What happens in Vagus?

What happens in Vagus?

What happens in Vagus?

What happens in Vagus?

Does what happen in Vagus stay in the Vagus? Not really; but in the future, bioelectronic medicines can be more selective via targeted neuromodulation and machine learning. This artwork blends together 4 tones relevant for SPARC's goals: 1) vagal modulation, 2) potentially selective neuromodulation, 3) machine learning controllers, and 4) closed-loop interfacing.  

This page last reviewed on October 10, 2020