Program Resources

Liquid being distributed among small tubesLearn more about the resources being developed by the NIH Common Fund Glycoscience program:


GlyGen is a data integration and dissemination project that retrieves information from multiple international data sources. Click below to access tutorials on using GlyGen and other online GlyGen resources.


  GLYCAM is a tool that facilitates computer modeling of carbohydrates.


CVLS4GAGs Beta is a tool for modeling glycosaminoglycan interactions with proteins. The tool is available for use for investigators with an edu/org/gov affiliation.


More Resources Developed through the Glycoscience Program 

Resources Generated from the Glycoscience Program U01s 
Resource Description Publication(s) Availibility through Website and/or Company
Affinity reagents (arrays) Antibody-like probes in lampreys to glycans from different sources NovAb, Inc. 
Quantitative O-glycomics and Amplification/Preparation of Cellular O-Glycans Technology to simulate synthesis of O-glycans in cell cultures
Glycam 3D structural modeling platform to predict glycan structures and their impact on polypeptide conformations of glycoproteins
IsoTag & IsoStamp Reagent for orthogonal metabolic labeling of glycans; 

Click Chemistry Tools: htttps://

GlycoMiR Integrated within GlycoEnzDB providing data on miRNA regulation of mRNA translation;                  Integrated within
Affinity reagents (arrays) Harnesses sialic acid binding proteins found in human oral microflora as additional glycan binding affinity probes   
Luminex Bead Glycan Array Luminex beads and software to study glycan binding proteins;  
Probes N-acetyl muramic acid orthogonal metabolic probes;  
Software for processing mass spectrometry glycomics and glycoproteomics data GlycReSoft is a tool for preprocessing and assigning glycoproteomics LC-MS data. GlycoDeNovo is a software tool for identification of glycans from ExD tandem mass spectra. GAGFinder and GAGrank are tools for annotating and ranking glycosaminoglycan saccharides from tandem mass spectra.;;;; 

GlycReSoft is available for download at:;

Library of synthetic glycosaminoglycan standards funded by 3R21HL131554-02S1 distributed upon request:;

GlycoDeNovo is available for download at: 

Glycan determination via suspension lectin arrays A near real-time technology using flow cytometry with bead-based glycan-specific reagents
Glycopeptide Transition Wiki (GPTwiki) Provides optimized observed transitions for the quantification of peptides modified by glycans
GAG sequencing Automated capillary electrophoresis-­tandem mass spectrometry platform for the structural analysis of mixtures of glycosaminoglycan oligomers that are isolated in protein binding assays;  
Biosensors of GalNAc transferase activity Protein-based fluorescence sensors that traffic in the secretory pathway to monitor GalNAc-transferase activity in living cells. The sensors can either be “pan” or isozyme specific.;  
T3Inh-1 Membrane-permeant, isozyme-selective, small molecule inhibitor of GalNAc-T3. Effective in cells and mice. Mechanism is direct and mixed-mode.  
Glycotuners (400 constructs) A suite of tools that enable small molecular regulation (Trimethoprim/Shield) of the expression of the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), O-GlcNAcase (OGT), Glutamine Fructose-6phophate aminotransferase 1, 2 (GFAT1,2), and UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine Pyrophosphorylase (UAP1/2).  
UGAcS and UXPS Genetically encoded fluorescent indicator for UDP-GlcNAc, and the control indicator UXPS for UTP and UDP
microbial Glycan Analysis Probes (mGAPs) Microbial glycan analysis probes (mGAPs) are based on soluble human lectins;;  
Photocrosslinking GlcNAc analog Method and reagents to identify cellular binding partners of glycosylated molecules;
Writing and erasing O-GlcNAc from target proteins in cells Fused nanobodies to O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) or O-GlcNAcase (OGA) as proximity-directing agents to selectively “write” and “erase” O-GlcNAc from a target protein in cells;  
Tools, Clinical assays

1. Antibody array for analysis of N-glycans on IgG and IgG subtypes;

2. Immune cell N-glycan profiling after capture by antibody array;

3. N-glycan profiling of cultured cells;

4. Total N-glycan profiling of serum, plasma, urine, exosomes and other biofluids


2. Manuscript in prepration;



CVLS For GAGs A computational tool for understanding GAG recognition of proteins;;
Glycan Libraries & Arrays  Chemical release of glycans from natural sources;;;
Chemical synthesis of glycosulfopeptides Scalable synthetic methodologies for GSP libraries; Development of methods for solid phase peptide synthesis;;  
Chemical & chemoenzymatic synthesis of GAGs Methods for the rapid synthesis of protected building blocks used for synthesis of GAG libraries with defined sulfation patterns; Chemical methods for the automation of GAG synthesis; GAG Libraries (up to 18mers);;;  Glycan Therapeutics
Chemoenzymatic synthesis of glycosphingolipids Chemoenzymatic methods for the total synthesis of glycosphingolipids; Necessary enzymes and substrates for assembly of easy-to-use reagent kits; Kits to prepare various glycolipids via chemoenzymatic synthesis; Integrated Micro-Chromatography Systems (IMCS) Inc.
Chemoenzymatic synthesis of polysaccharides Methods for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of several different bacterial oligosaccharides a; Prepared and optimized enzymes for these purposes   Integrated Micro-Chromatography Systems (IMCS) Inc. 
Automation of chemical synthesis Methods to synthesize the building blocks required to make O-glycans; First automated routes for synthesis of linear rhamnose-based polysaccharides;;;;;;
Automation of chemical synthesis An HPLC based automated synthesis platform, and development of synthetic methods and polymer supports for solid-phase glycan synthesis;;;;;;;;;;
Automation of chemoenzymatic synthesis Methods for automation of chemoenzymatic synthesis; Methods to prepare building blocks for use on his automated platform for chemoenzymatic synthesis of glycans; Commercialized a library of enzymes suitable for these purposes; Several glycans and glycan libraries have been synthesized and some have been used to prepare glycan arrays;;;

Glyco Expression Technology (;

Zymtronix Catalytic Systems, Inc (;


Automation of chemoenzymatic synthesis Glyco-enzymes (for synthetic purposes) developed and standard protocols for chemoenzymatic synthesis of O-glycans, Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) and Bacterial Polysaccharides (PSs); Machine driven approach for automatic synthesis of glycans and glycopeptides (using a peptide synthesizer);
Chemily Glycoscience sells the glycans, enzymes, and arrays created with them (; z BIOTECH, LLC sells arrays containing these libraries (
Catalytic methods development  Bis-thiourea catalysts (that promote stereospecific reactions between a wide variety of complex nucleophiles and glycosyl phosphate donors) ; Methods for their highly selective and practical beta-mannosylation of alcohols, phenols, and thiols ; Progress toward site selective glycosylations of polyfunctional nucleophiles  through catalyst design;;;
Catalytic methods development  Site-selective alkylation methods for both trans and cis -1,2-diols of O-glycosides; S-adamantyl group directed highly site-selective acylation of the C2-OH of various S glycosides; Mild way to prepare glycosyl chlorides and glycosyl bromides for cross-coupling glycosylation;;;
Catalytic methods development  Stereoselective glycosylation reactions for the direct construction of beta-linked glycans using appropriately selected sulfonyl chloride promoters in the absence of directing groups; Construction of rare deoxy-sugar monosaccharides including a novel gold-catalyzed process for the cyclization of homopropargyl orthoformates; Automation of these new methods;;;;;
Catalytic methods development  New catalytic methods utilizing a phenathroline catalyst or a visible-light-mediated copper catalyst for the synthesis of glycans;;
Catalytic methods development  A novel fluorescent multifunctional neoglycoside auxiliary (N-(2-ThioEthyl)-2-AminoBenzamide, (TEAB) synthesized as a versatile reagent for preparing thiol-functionalized glycans in high yield;
Catalytic methods development  New catalytic methods for the synthesis of building blocks for glycan synthesis and for the conversion of glycan isomers (D to L);;;
Synthetic methods development for carbohydrate synthesis New micro-wave assisted methods for the chemical synthesis of glycans;;
Synthetic methods development for carbohydrate synthesis Building block assembly and novel strategies for assembling glycosidic linkages; A simple method of synthesizing carbohydrates (performed at room temperature with commercial reagents without purification or drying);;  
Catalytic methods development  New catalytic methods for the synthesis of glycans;;




      The GECKO Project: CRISPR/Cas9-based molecular biology for validated human glycosyltransferase knock out cell lines

      Haab Lab: Software for analyzing glycan-array data, More information here and here

      Kohler Lab: Photocrosslinking sugar technology that can be used to identify glycan-dependent interactions

      Zaia Research Group: GAG synthetic saccharides

      National Center for Functional Glycomics: Lectin Reference Data 
      Wells and West Labs: Synthetic O-Glycan Standards
      Bertozzi Group: IsoTag Kit for Profiling Intact Glycopeptides and Isostamp v2.0 to analyze IsoTag data
      Li Lab: Info on synthetic useful glyco-enzymes and standard protocols for chemoenzymatic synthesis of O-glycans, glycosphingolipids, and bacterial polysaccharides

This page last reviewed on May 6, 2022